The latest in architectural design are innovations that are convenient to maintain and economical. Marcus Hiles has observed the upsurge in demand for open-air spaces that are workable and also cut expenses. Environmental and conservation options for example rainwater/graywater harvesting and permeable pavement are frequently followed methods. By using rooftop collection system, rainwater harvesting sends wetness from the air for storage in a well to be disinfected and reused on-site. Graywater utilizes home wastewater and sends it to lavatories and non-drinking purposes, reducing fresh water needs and saving resources on purification. A good idea for ecologically minded construction, permeable paving, goes back to thousands of years to an era when citizens first assembled roads by putting stones in beds over the ground. The method allows the rain to pass through small openings among four layers of filtration (paving material, gravel, fabric, sand) before becoming absorbed by the earth underneath. Its benefits include lowering runoff and pollution, curbing the flow of storm water to gutters and drains, refilling local groundwater supplies and providing a skid resistant surface for walkways, patios and driveways; their various nice-looking patterns often feature crushed stone, brick, and recycled concrete.